ENDNOTES
 
 

1. Public Law 89-665, 15 October 1966.

2. For a chronology of the establishment of some of the more significant organizations and legislation see Murtagh, Keeping Time, 205-212.

3. Abercrombie, "Big in the 70's: Recycling and Restoration," 55.

4. Statement of James Biddle, President, National Trust for Historic Preservation in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 9.

5. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects were codified in 1978 as 36 CFR 1207. The standards were revised in 1983 and most recently in 1995 as The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties as 36 CFR 68 and published in the 12 July 1995 Federal Register (Vol. 60, No. 133). For a summary of the evolution of the standards, see Weeks, "Historic Preservation Treatment: Toward a Common Language," 32-35.

6. Abercrombie, "Big in the 70's: Recycling and Restoration," 55.

7. Dietsch, "Reviving Rehabilitation Tax Credits," 13.

8. The National Trust sponsored Seminar on Preservation and Restoration took place in Williamsburg, Virginia on 8-11 September 1963. The Second International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historical Monuments was held in Venice on 25-31 May 1964; the result of this meeting was the adoption of the International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (Venice Charter).

9. Jokilehto, "The Debate on Authenticity," 6.

10. Mosse, "Comment," 42.

11. (Not Used)

12. From James Short's preface to Historic Preservation Today: Essays Presented to the Seminar on Preservation and Restoration, Williamsburg, Virginia, September 8-11, 1963, v.

13. The third paper, "Reconstruction of the Old Town Centers of Poland" by Stanislaw Lorentz is primarily a documentation of the post-war efforts to reconstruct the damaged city centers of Poland. Though not discussed here, the subject remains a common example in the historic preservation field. In one of the first codified preservation books written over twenty-five years after the conference, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World by James Marston Fitch, the reconstruction of the town centers is used as a case study in preservation practice.

14. Dupont, "Viollet-le-Duc and Restoration in France," 8-9.

15. ibid, 11-13.

16. Viollet-le-Duc as quoted by Dupont, ibid, 13.

17. Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire raisonné, 214.

18. ibid, 216.

19. Dupont, "Viollet-le-Duc and Restoration in France," 21-22.

20. Summerson, "Ruskin, Morris, and the ‘Anti-Scrape' Philosophy," 23.

21. APT Bulletin 17, no. 3 & 4 (1985).

22. Wheeler, Michael, ed. Ruskin and Environment: The Storm-Cloud of the Nineteenth Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

23. Ruskin, "The Lamp of Memory" in The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 186-187. Quoted in Summerson, "Ruskin, Morris, and the ‘Anti-Scrape' Philosophy," 23-24.

24. Summerson, ibid, 25-26.

25. Ruskin, ibid, 197. Quoted in Summerson, ibid, 26.

26. Ruskin, ibid, 194. Quoted in Summerson, ibid, 27.

27. Ruskin, ibid, 196-197. Quoted in Summerson, ibid, 27-28.

28. Summerson, ibid, 28-32.

29. Summerson, ibid, 32.

30. Ruskin's belief in continual maintenance is recalled in Article 5 of the Venice Charter and the rejection of restoration (unless absolutely necessary) is recalled in Article 7.

31. In the recommended curriculum presented in the Suggested Guidelines for Training in Architectural Conservation issued by the National Conservation Advisory Council in 1980, 70% of all course work is dedicated to materials studies.

32. Ruskin, "The Lamp of Memory" in The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 178.

33. Summerson, "Ruskin, Morris, and the ‘Anti-Scrape' Philosophy," 32.

34. Riegl, "The Modern Cult of Monuments," 23-24.

35. ibid, 42.

36. ibid, 42.

37. ibid, 38.

38. ibid, 39.

39. ibid, 21.

40. Forster, "Monument/Memory and the Morality of Architecture," 3.

41. Riegl, "The Modern Cult of Monuments," 44.

42. Forster, "Monument/Memory and the Morality of Architecture," 8.

43. Riegl, "The Modern Cult of Monuments," 48.

44. Le Corbusier, from notes on a presentation to be made in Moscow on 20 October 1928. Quoted in Cohen, Le Corbusier and the Mystique of the USSR, 44.

45. Owings, "Comment," 238.

46. Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World, 8.

47. Riegl, "The Modern Cult of Monuments," 44.

48. Summerson, "Ruskin, Morris, and the ‘Anti-Scrape' Philosophy," 32.

49. Colquhoun, "Thoughts on Riegl," 83.

50. ibid, 79.

51. Hearn, The Architectural Theory of Viollet-le-Duc, 241.

52. Bressani, "Notes on Viollet-le-Duc's Philosophy of History," 348.

53. Viollet-le-Duc, Lectures I, 100. Quoted in Bressani, ibid, 348.

54. 36 CFR Part 1207, December 7, 1978 (40 FR 57250).

55. At least two different versions of the Venice Charter are available: one version appeared on several different occasions in 1965 including publication in Historic Preservation and the AIA Journal and a second version was available at the ICOMOS home page in 1996. The content of both versions are nearly identical, only the arrangement of the specific articles is altered. All references to the Venice Charter will be made from the version printed in Historic Preservation 17 (January/February 1965): 20-24.

56. Few English translations or commentaries are available on the work of Camillo Boito. The most complete account is given in Skarmeas, "An Analysis of Architectural Preservation Theories," 81-84. Some additional insights are provided in Knithakis, "International Principles of Restoration Today," 104-105 and Soroka, "Restauro in Venezia," 224-228.

57. For example, Viollet-le-Duc's belief in the multiple individuals and specialists required for restoration work is recalled in Articles 2 and 9, the need for the replacement of weak materials with stronger ones is recalled in Article 6 and the need for accurate documentation is recalled in Article 15. Ruskin's belief in continual maintenance is recalled in Article 5 and the rejection of restoration (unless absolutely necessary) is recalled in Article 7.

58. Venice Charter, Article 1.

59. Venice Charter, Article 10.

60. Venice Charter, Article 12.

61. National Register Bulletin 16, 11

62. Feiss, "True or False," 50.

63. Venice Charter, Article 8.

64. Conclusion 2 of the Resolutions of the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings.

65. James Marston Fitch defines the historical example as the prototype, the original type, form, or instance that serves as a model on which later stages are based or judged. Fitch, Historic Preservation, 1.

66. Carlhain, "Guides, Guideposts and Guidelines," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 52.

67. ibid, 54.

68. Cavaglieri, "The Harmony That Can't be Dictated," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 44-45.

69. Hewitt, "Architecture for a Contingent Environment," 200.

70. ibid, 199.

71. Ruskin's understanding of the interrelationships of the entire environment, both built and natural, is discussed by Gill Chitty, "‘A Great Entail': The Historic Environment," in Ruskin and the Environment: The Storm Cloud of the Nineteenth Century, edited by Michael Wheeler (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995).

72. Beasley, "New Construction in Residential Historic Districts," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 231-233.

73. Blake, "The Architecture of Courtesy," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 111.

74. Wilson, "Evolution in a Historic Area's ‘Tout Ensemble'," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 155-157.

75. National Parks Service, 1978 Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects.

76. National Parks Service, 1978 Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects.

77. U.S. Department of the Interior, The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects with Guidelines for Applying the Standards (1979), 32.

78. U.S. Department of the Interior, The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservation Projects and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings (1983), 57.

79. National Parks Service, The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation & Illustrated Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings (1992), 90.

80. National Parks Service, 1995 Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties.

81. Graves and Wolf, "Beyond Mere Manners and Cosmetic Compatibility," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 74-75.

82. Unreferenced criticism quoted by Graves and Wolf, ibid, 69.

83. ibid, 70.

84. ibid, 70.

85. ibid, 77.

86. Goldberger, "To Preserve the Visibility of Time," in National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old & New Architecture: Design Relationship, 263.

87. Venturi, "Iconography on Architecture."

88. Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction, 16-17.

89. Moffett, "The Wall in Recent Architectural Form," 242.

90. ibid, 253.

91. For more information refer to Maher v. City of New Orleans, Berman v. Parker, Stone v. City of Maitland.

92. Analysis based on information obtained from Bergdoll, "Sailors' Delight," 66-73.

93. James Stewart Polshek's description of the building in Bergdoll, "Sailors' Delight," 66.

94. Analysis based on information obtained from Schmertz, New Life for Old Buildings, 90-91

95. Analysis based on information obtained from Pearson, "Pas de Deux," 82-85.

96. Analysis based on information obtained from Abercrombie, "The Wainwright: Building on Genius," 162-166.

97. Analysis based on information obtained from Schmertz, New Life for Old Buildings, 30-38.

98. "1977 AIA Honor Awards," 32.

99. "1995 AIA Honor Awards, " 120.

100. Schwarzer, "Myths of Permanence and Transience," 7-8.

101. For example, in the concentrated focus to protect the early skyscrapers of Chicago produced in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century many other aspects of the city's history outside of the Chicago School were completely forgotten. See Bluestone, "Preservation and Renewal in Post-World War II Chicago," 221

102. Schwarzer, "Myths of Permanence and Transience," 8.

103. Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country, 387-388.

104. Tomlan, "Historic Preservation Education: Alongside Architecture in Academia," 192.

105. As stated by the National Register, "The use of the historic context allows a property to be properly evaluated in a nearly infinite number of capacities." Ideally, the historic context can be manipulated at will according to the demands of the present situation. National Register Bulletin 15, 11.

106. ICOMOS. "Inter-American Symposium on Authenticity in the Conservation and Management of Cultural Heritage." Papers unpublished at the time of thesis writing.

107. For a recent documentation on the difficulties of recognizing the heritage of Native Americans, see Parker, "What You Do and How We Think," 5.

108. Schwarzer, "Myths of Permanence and Transience," 9.

109. The trajectory of history no longer subscribes to a belief in a greater narrative which all histories seek to fulfill or find a place within. History is full of new directions and objects of study which are only now beginning to be fulfilled. See Megill, " ‘Grand Narrative' and the Discipline of History."

110. Bressani, "Notes on Viollet-le-Duc's Philosophy of History," 348.

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